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第十五讲 轻巧句、并列句和复合句

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生龙活虎。考纲必要

翻译技巧中的“柳絮剑法日太阴元君教武功日月心法”

  语法知识点1

检查评定大纲必要考生能科学推断句子的体系、分析句子结构、结合语境和句意选用相符的接连几日词语、剖断主语和从句的对的语序、稳妥选拔主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

且看它们有多种要,看图别看本身:

  1.as…as.。。引导的可比级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+
as+被相比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you.
他像您同生龙活虎学习努力。

二。命题导向

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  (2)在否定句或难点句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as
fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等高校统一招考对简易句、并列句和复合句的试验重要不外乎:句子的结构、连词的筛选、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习贯用语和特别规的句式应用。

中湖蓝圈出风华正茂部分~~

  2.only指点的倒装句型:only +状语
(或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

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  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life. 
独有任劳任怨、正直,一个人在生活中才能得逞。 

1.简短句、并列句和复合句

字不主要,看图~~

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to
work out the problem.  唯有那位女子知道什么样解那道题。

① 句子种类二种分类法

什么人明白as、v+ing、with,什么人就得练神功。那多个职能词怎么用啊?且看下文,笔者只是个搬运工。有必要的对象,动动你的指头,复制、粘贴、打字与印刷。笔者是您的好相恋的人曾沐!

  3.wish辅导的设想语气:wish
前面包车型大巴从句,今世表与实际相反的事态,或意味着以往不太大概完成的意愿时,其宾语从句的动词情势为: 

遵纪守法句子的用项,塞尔维亚语的句子可分:汇报句(确定、否定)、疑问句(日常、特殊、接纳、反意)、祈使句、惊叹句等二种。

作品结尾处有彩蛋~~不谢!

  ⑴表示对后天场合包车型大巴虚构:从句动词用过去式或过去实行式表示,be
的千古式用were.   

依据句子的布局可分:轻便句并列句和复合句二种。

一、as的用法

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.   
作者希望了然那么些题指标答案。(缺憾不知底。) 

轻松易行句唯有二个主语或并列主语和叁个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and,
but,
or,so等)或分行(;)把多少个或多少个以上的简易句连在一同构成。复合句:含有二个或壹个上述从句的句子。复合句满含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

1.as用作连词指导光阴状语从句

  ⑵代表对过去景观的杜撰:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

② 并列排在一条线句的分类

as与when,while都以教导时间状语从句的依据连词,含义都以“当……的时候”。

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time. 
小编后悔不应当浪费这么多时光。( 实际晚春经浪费掉了。) 

并称句指把七个相似首要的语句连接在一块儿,句子之间常用and, not only…but
also…, neither…nor…, then等并称连词连接。

但它们有区别

  ⑶表示对明清的不合理意愿:谓语动词情势为“would/ should/ could/ might
+动词原形”。在这里种场合下,主句的主语与从句的主语不能够同生龙活虎,因为主句的主语所愿意的从句动作能不能够达成,决意于从句主语的神态或希望(非动作名词除却)
。 

表示采取事关常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

用when时,从句的动作能够与主句的动作同临时间爆发,也足以先于主句的动作发生;

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能止住。 

代表转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

用while时,从句的动作为生机勃勃经过,主句动作与从句动作同时开展或在从句动作进度中发生;

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用
would,能够象征诉求,平时意味着说话人的优伤或可惜。

代表因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

用as时,主句和从句的动作同一时候产生,具有继续的意义。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  作者愿意你安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

例如:

  4.it格局宾语:和it 作情势主语肖似,  大家常用it 来作情势宾语,
把真的的宾语从句放在句末, 这种意况越发出现在带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的归类

(1)It was snowing when he arrived at the construction site.

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in.
他申明他不会投降。 

状语从句常常修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由从属连词辅导,从属连词在从句中不担任句子成分。依据状语从句所表明的例外含义和机能,可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目标、结果、妥协、相比较、格局等状语从句。

他达到工地时,天正在下雪。

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越….。。越….。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的辞藻

(2)He was watching TV while his mother was cooking.

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will
become。大家越惊悸劳累,困难就能变得越强盛。

岁月状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as,
hardly/ scarcely…when…, no sooner…than.。.风流洒脱……就……,while, till,
until, since, once。名词词组the first time第贰遍,last
time最后一回,every/each time每回,the next time后一次,the next
day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant
意气风发……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

他阿妈做饭时他在看TV。

  语法知识点2

由来状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

(3) You will grow wiser as you grow older.

  1. 宾语从句:日常难题句做宾语,引进if或whether

地方状语从句:where,wherever(无论这里)。

你会趁着年龄的抓牢而进一层聪明。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

低头状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though,
although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however,
wherever, whenever等。

2.as用作连词辅导案由状语从句

  2. 缘故状语从句:since引导的

基准状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(即使;只要),in case (万生机勃勃);
on condition that(如若), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

as,because,since都能够象征因果关系,连接原因状语从句,含义是“因为,由于”。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

目标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

但它们有区别

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely…when。.

相比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……)
指导。

because表示的语气最强;

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

方法状语从句:as(正如;遵照),as if/as though (好像)指引。

as日常位于句首,语气较弱,较口语化;

  4. If虚拟条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以致于)。

since平时用在封面语中,表示多为对方已知的、或稍加剖释便可查出的来头,有的时候可译作”既然”。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

(3)从句中的语序

例如:

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词前面,作介词的宾语。

复合句中国和日本常选拔汇报语序。可是,在上面包车型大巴两种意况下,状语从句多利用倒装语序:

(1) He will succeed because he is in earnest.

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in
Shanghai。

①当连词as,
though连接妥胁状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词日常置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。比如:

她迟早会中标,因为他很认真。

  6.状语从句轻松(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语大器晚成致,状从轻巧接纳分词作者状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as
John。

(2) Since you are so sure of ithe”ll believe you.

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because
we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn’t get the door open。

既是您对此如此有把握,他会信赖您的。  

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

(3) As rain has fallen, the air is cooler.

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的多少个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such…that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句接收部分倒装语序。举个例子:

因为下过雨,空气比较舒畅。

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb
表示“后边叁个意况适用于世世代代”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new
branches elsewhere.

3.as作连词指导拗然则状语从句

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

as与although (或though),however (或no matter
how)等都足以教导退让状语从句,含义是“虽然,尽管”。

  3.定语从句 who引导的约束性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no
sooner置于句首时,首个分句采纳局地倒装语序,即把第1个分句用陈说语序。举例:

但它们有区别

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English
?你还记得教大家马耳他语的十一分女孩啊?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

although语气稍正式些,可放在句首,也可放在句中,主句中无法再用but,但足以用yet;

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一同指点妥胁状语从句,句子采纳陈述语序。举个例子:

as所代表的语气较强,带领的妥洽状语从句用倒装语序;

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to
rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my
attention on study this week。

however辅导妥胁状语从句时,它的前面可跟形容词或副词,也要用倒装语序。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will
continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the
+比较级the+比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子依然接纳叙述语序。举个例子:Education
is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you
are。

例如:

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since
的分化之处在于,now that
引出的总得是八个新面世的实际情形或意况,借使照旧还是,和千古相比较并未调换,则不用
now that 带领。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

(1) Although he is quite old, he still jogs every day.

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the
new task at
once。既然大家把全部资料都计划好了,大家应有登时开头那项新的干活。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态日常遵守以下的法规:

他固然年纪超级大,依然每一日慢跑。

  7. 缘由状从:for的用法。由because
指点的从句假如放在句末,且前边有逗号,则足以用并列连词 for
来代表。但尽管不是表达间接原因,而是二种意况再说预计,就只能用 for
。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill.
他前些天没来,因为他身患了。

①意味“同临时间”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while
等连接的时光状语从句,主句和从句时态基本生龙活虎致。举个例子:As time passed,
things seemed to get worse。

(2) Strange as it may seem, nobody was injured in the accident.

  8. 缘故状从:as 的用法。例句:The 星岛 passengers begin to
decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。


表示“以后”意义的标准化、时间和妥洽状语从句中多用平时今后时,而主句用平时以往时,被叫作“主将从现”。比方:Tomwon’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

此次竟然就算显得令人难以置信,却尚未人受到损伤。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will
be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

as, though表示“虽然……但是”,“纵使……”之意。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:


since带领的小时状语从句多用日常过去时,而满含since从句的主句日常用现时做届时。举个例子:I
haven’t met her since I left university。

as指导的投降状语从句必需以局地倒装的格局现身,被倒装的一些能够是表语、状语或动词原形,though间或也用于那样的构造中,但although不得以这么用。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes
competition. 合营化的优点在于能推动相互竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than…中,第三个分句中过去产生时,第二个分句用平时过去时。举例:She
had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

例如:

  10. 不定式:不定式做指标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch
the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though
指引的状语从句中,假使表暗中提示气风发种与真情相反浮夸,从句多用平时过去时或过去实现时。举例:She
stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

Object as you may, I’ll go.

  小说来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的简约

(=Though/Although you may object, I’ll go.)

当从句的主语与主句的主语相符期,被动结构的状语从句,可总结与主句相符的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动组织的状语从句,可总结与主句相符的主语和助动词,保留连词+今后分词。例如:We
all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get
worse。

不怕你反对,笔者也要去。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

Hard as/ though he works, he makes little progress. (=Though he works
hard, he makes little progress.)

(6)状语从句被用于重申协会中

就算她学习很拼命,但差相当少没到手什么发展。   Child as/though he was, he
knew what was the right thing to do.(=Though he was a child, he knew
what was the right thing to do.卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎

状语从句作为被重申某个用以重申组织时,后生可畏律用It is/was
…that…,无法用when替代that。句子用陈述语序。注意:当重申Not until
+时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再行使倒装语序。举例:It was not until
the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

虽说他是一个子女,但她领略该做哪些。

  1. 名词性从句

Fast as you read, you can’t finish the book so soon.

(1)名词性从句分类:

固然你读得快,你也不可能那样快读完那本书。

遵照在句中的效能,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句各个。

(3) However hard he may try, he will not attain his goal.

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

随意她如何努力也达不到对象。

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不辜负勒令分,有时可被略去;表示“是不是”用whether,独有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if取代。Whether和if在从句中不担当成分。若是从句缺少主语、表语、宾语、或定语等语句成分,用三番四回代词what,
whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose,
which;要是从句贫乏状语,用三回九转副词when, where, how, why。

4.as作波及代词的用法

鉴于一而再再而三代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因此从句中谓语不用难点语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句当作句子成分,而一而再词whether
和if(是不是),在从句中不担负句子成分,只起一连效用。

涉及代词as易地而处定语从句时,既可以够独自使用,也能够与其它词连用,其用法要比that和which更为复杂。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

(1卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎as带领定语从句与别的词连用

① 在偏下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”,
should可粗略。

①用于the same…as结构中

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。家常便饭的形容词有important, necessary, natural,
funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(为之侧目的)等。

This is the same book as I read last week.

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。见惯不惊的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion,
proposal(建议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

这本书和自己前一周读的那本是均等。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。不感到奇的动词有advise, order, propose,
request, suggest, demand, require等。

②用于such…as结构中

②在insist(百折不挠), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令),
suggest(建议),advise(提议),recommend(提议,推荐),
request(央浼,供给),
demand(要求),require(要求,须要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,
should可回顾。

I don”t like such books as he recommends.

③ 在蕴藏advice, order, demand, proposal(建议), requirement,
suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可粗略。

本身不爱好他引荐的那一个书。

④在一些表示惊叹、意志力等情感色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should
+have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。举个例子:

③用于”so +adj. + a/an + n. (单数) + as “结构中

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I am not so strong a man as I was.

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

自身曾经远非过去那么强壮了。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

(2卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)as单独指引定语从句
as单独指引定语从句时,先行词能够是多个词,也得以是一个句子或短语。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

例如:

  1. 定语从句

(1) She is late, as is often the case.

(1)定语从句的分类

他迟到了,那是日常的事。

定语从句分为节制性定语从句非节制性定语从句几种。限定性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限量功用,而非节制性定语从句对先行词起补充和表达表达效果与利益。平日限定性定语从句与先行词之间未有逗号,而非约束性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔断。

(先行词是整套主句)

(2)定语从句的涉嫌代词和关联副词

(2) To shut your eyes to facts, as many of you do, is foolish.

定语从句平时由关系代词和事关副词指点。关系代词有:who, whom, whose,
which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where,
why。关系代词和事关副词必得放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连连先行词和从句的功效,同期在从句中又出任句子成分。

对真情不闻不问–你们好些个人都以这样的呆笨。

(3)关系代词和涉及副词的用法:

(先行词是不定式短语)

①超过行词为人时用who
作主语,whom作宾语;②超过行词为物或任何句羊时用which,可作主语或宾语;③事先词为人、物时用that
,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤
关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地点,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

5.as作介词的用法 as作介词,意思是”作为”,”以……身份”

(4)约束性定语从句与非限定性定语从句的分别

例如:

①限定性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完全,以致不合逻辑。比方:I
was the only person in our office who was
invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就破损)

He came to China as a tourist five years ago.


非约束性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不细致,去掉定从句,意思如故安然依旧。情势上用逗号隔绝,不能够that用携带。举个例子:His
movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his
wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的乐趣仍完整)

她三年前以旅客的身价来过中华。

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难题

6.as作副词的用法 to the same degree or amount; equally
“相同地”,”同样地”。

①用that而不用 which的场所:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing,
much…;先行词有最高等修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very,
any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。举例:There is nothing that can
prevent him from doing it。

例如:

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

They don”t have as many airplanes.

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

他俩不曾相仿多的飞机。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

二、动词ing情势的用法

② 用which而不用
that的境况:辅导非约束性定语从句;指代整个主句的情致;用于介词 的后边+
关系代词。例如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be
poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world,
there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an
example。

一)Ving形式作定语

③ 关系代词as的用法

分词短语作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之后;

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same
+名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as指导定语从句。举个例子:

单个分词作者定语时,放在被修饰的名词以前。

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

例如:

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

The man standing by the window is our teacher. Many frightened people
rushed out of the burning building.  

b.
as可代表主句的剧情,教导的非约束性定语从句既可放在主句此前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as
is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all
know, as I expect 等。比如: He got the first place again in this
mid-term examination, as we expected。

Ving作定语首要代表动作和用处。

c. as 引导非约束性定语从句时与which的差别

  1. 代表动作(主动的、进行的动作卡塔尔。

当主句和从句语义黄金年代致时,用as引导;反之,用which来指引迷津非限定性定语从句;当非节制订语从句为否定意义时,常用which引导。举个例子:

a waiting car = the car that is waiting

He made a long speech, as we expected。

a sleeping child 入睡的男女

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

The girl standing there is my sister.

④关乎代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数照旧用复数应由先行词决定。比方:

站在当下的女孩是自个儿的姊妹。

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the
morning。

[注意]当今分词作者定语时,它意味着的动作是正在进展或与谓语动词所代表的动作大约同期爆发,借使五个动作有先有后,平常无法用今后分词作者定语,而要用定语从句。

⑤ 教导定语从句的涉及副词有时能够用“介词 + which”来替代。举例:

比如说: The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window.
先生商量了打破窗户的学员。

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was
founded。

  1. 代表用处:

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只可以用which和whom,且无法大概;假设介词在句末,关系代词可用which,
that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可总结。举个例子:

the waiting room = the room for waiting 候车室

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be
friendly。

a working method 专门的工作章程

上一页12345678910下一页

He has a reading room. 他有二个书屋。

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【比较】

过去分词作者定语:及物动词的过去分词表示被动,不如物动词的过去分词表示动作达成。
 

例如:

That is the book written by Lu Xun. 那是周樟寿写的书。

He is a returned student. 他是贰个回国的留学子。

不定式作定语: 用不定式作定语,其平常所修饰的名词、代词有: meeting,
reason, time, way, need, right, chance, decision, wish, promise,
ability, anxiety, something, anything, nothing, anybody, somebody,
thing…

例如: We have no time to lose.

咱俩没一时间(能够浪费卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎了。

That’s the plan to build the factory.

这正是建那座工厂的铺排。

(二)Ving形式作宾语补足语

  1. 在keep, find, notice, have, feel, hear, see,
    leave…等动词后常用Ving方式作宾语补足语。 举个例子:

1) The boss kept the workers working the whole night.

这一个主任让工友孜孜以求地劳作。

2) We found the old lady lying in bed.

咱俩开采那老太太躺在床的上面。

  1. 在感官动词:

see, hear, look at, notice, observe, feel, find…等及应用动词:have,
make, leave, keep,
get…等后既可以够用不定式也足以用Ving格局作宾语补足语。不定式(不带
to卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)表示经过或动作完毕,Ving方式重申实行或及时情景。

例如:

I saw the lady crossing the street.

自家看到那位妇女在过马路。

We heard her sing two songs.

咱俩听他唱了两首歌。

(三)Ving方式作主语
Ving方式具备动词和名词的性质,在句中起名词成效,可作主语。   Seeing is
believing.耳听为虚。

It is no use arguing with him.

和他争辨并未有用。

Ving情势作主语常用于下列句型:

【句型1】It is + 名词(或形容词卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar) + 动名词 It is + no use /no  good/ a
waste of time so nice+ crying there.doing that.

例如:

1) It’s a waste of time waiting here. 在那等是浪费时间。

2) It’s so nice talking to you. 很欢腾和你讲讲。

【句型2】 There is no + 动名词    

譬喻: There is no stopping of him. 不能够阻拦他。

There was no telling of the difference. 不可能加以区分。

【注意】

① Ving方式和不定式都得以作主主语,Ving方式作主语表示平时或抽象的
数十次性行为,不定式作主语往往代表具体的或贰遍性的动作。

例如:

Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火卡塔尔国

To play with fire will be dangerous.(指大器晚成维妙维肖动作卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎

但在It is no use / good, not any use / good, useless
等后必得用Ving情势。

② Ving情势作主语,谓语动词用单数。

如: Forgetting the past means betrayal.

忘却过去就表示戴绿帽子。

(四卡塔尔Ving情势作表语
Ving方式具备形容词和名词的性质,在句中可作表语。作表语用的Ving格局有二种:

后生可畏种用作名词,黄金时代种用作形容词。

用作名词时,表达主语的内容,就此提问时,用what ;

用作形容词时,表明主语的表征,用how进行讯问。

例如:

Her favourite job is teaching English.→ What is her favourite job?   It
is interesting to read such a story. → How is it to read such a story?

(五)Ving格局作宾语
Ving情势具备动词和名词的性质,在句中起名词成效,可作宾语。

He is fond of playing football. I like swimming.
他很喜欢足球,小编喜爱游泳。

【注意】①admit, appreciate, avoid,consider, delay, dislike, enjoy,
escape, excuse, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, include,
keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, put off, resist, risk, suggest,
can’t help, can’t stand等动词后得以用Ving形式作宾语,但不可能用不定式。

②forget, go on, like, mean, regret, remember, stop,
try等动词可带Ving方式或不定式作宾语,但意义上有不一样。

试比较:

I remember doing the exercise.

自家回忆做过练习。

I must remember to do it.

本身一定要记着做这件事。

I tried not to go there.

本人灵机一动不去这里。

I tried doing it again.

自个儿试着又干了叁次。

Stop speaking.  

不用说话。

He stopped to talk.

她停下来讲话。

I mean to come early today.

自己计划后日来早些。

Missing the train means waiting for another hour.

误了那趟列车意味着再等三个小时。

③在allow, advise, forbid, permit
等动词后平素跟动词作者宾语时,要用Ving方式,假如后边有名词或代词作者宾语,然后在跟动词作者宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式。

例如:

We don’t allow smoking here. we don’t allow students to smoke.

④动词need, require,
want作“须求”解,其后跟动词作它的宾语时,必须用Ving方式,或不定式的被动式,那时,Ving情势的主动方式表示被动意义。

例如:

The window needs (requires, wants) cleaning (to be cleaned).

⑤在短语devote to, look forward to, stick to, be used to, object to,
thank you for, excuse me for, be (kept) busy, be worth, have difficulty
/ trouble / problem(in), have a good / wonderful / hard time(in), feel
 like, get down to等后的动词也必须要用Ving情势。

例如:

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

⑥在love, hate,
prefer等动词后用Ving格局或不定式无大的不一样。但讲话人具备指的时候,日常用不定式。

⑦start, begin, continue在封面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。

⑧在should (would) like / love等后须用不定式。

【知识进行】 Ving格局的时态和语态

  1. Ving格局的时态
    Ving方式的时态分日常式和完结式三种,若是Ving格局的动作没有显明地意味着出时间是与谓语动词同有的时候候发生或在谓语动词在此以前爆发,用Ving格局的平时式。

例如:

His coming will be of great  help to us.

生龙活虎旦Ving情势的动作发生在谓语动词所代表的动作早前,日常用Ving方式的到位时态。

例如:

I’m sorry for not having kept my promise.

  1. Ving格局的语态
    主语是那么些Ving情势所代表的动作的靶蛇时,Ving情势用被动语态。

被动语态由“being + 过去分词”或“having been +
过去分词”构成,后生机勃勃种日常幸免采纳。

例如:

He likes being helped.

He was afraid of being left at home.

在to be worth doing 句型中,Ving形式doing代表的是被动意义。

例 如:

The book is worth reading.

动词的-ing情势是日文中国和欧洲谓语动词的意气风发种,它在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语及补足语。

出于这种情势是由动词变化而来的,因而它具有动词的部分表征,就可以带本人的宾语和状语,进而结成动词
-ing短语。它不时态和语态的退换,也是有否定情势及其复合结构方式。    

现以动词do为例,其变动情势如下:

复合结构情势在句中关键作主语和宾语。作宾语时可用代词宾格或名词普通格加上动词的-ing情势。

豆蔻梢头、
动词-ing格局作主语(常常指一个硕大而无当动作)时,它可径直置于主语地方,也足以用it作方式主语,而把作真正主语的动词-ing方式放在句子的后部。

例如:

  1. Knowing table manners will help you make a good impression.

  2. Having a cellphone also makes us feel safer, since we can call for
    help in case of an emergency.

  3. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. 4. His coming made us very happy.
    (复合结构作主语)

二、 动词-ing方式作宾语。

例如:

  1. Having good table manners means knowing how to use knives and forks,
    when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table.

  2. Do you prefer living in the zoo or living in the jungle?

  3. I really can’t understand you treating her like that.

[注意]

  1. 下列动词前面平常要用动词-ing格局作宾语。 enjoy, finish, stop, mind,
    suggest, practise, excuse(原 谅),appreciate, keep, risk(冒险), consider,
    admit, miss(错过), imagine, avoid(制止), delay(推迟) resist, cannot
    help等。

  2. 在need, want, require, be worth 等动词(短语)后边常用动词  
     -ing的能动情势表示被动意义。

例如:

The flowers want watering.

三、 动词-ing情势作表语(常指主语的内容、状态或性质等)。

例如:

My interests are reading  novels, playing football and singing songs.  
 

The film was so moving that we saw it twice.

四、 动词-ing形式作定语

单个的动词-ing格局作定语时,常置于所修饰的名词前边;动词-ing短语作定语时则常置于被修饰的词前边。

例如:

  1. English is the working language of most international. organizations,
    international trade and tourism.

  2. The building being built now will be our library.

五、 动词-ing形式作状语

动词-ing情势作状语时,能够表示时间、原因、伴随情况、条件、结果等。

例如:

  1. Hearing the good news, he jumped with great joy. (时间)

  2. Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note. (原因)

  3. The next moment the first wave swept her down, swallowing the garden.
    (伴随意况)

  4. In Sydney the Chinese team got 28 gold medals, ranking third of all
    the competing countries.

(结果) 注意:

  1. 动词-ing形式(短语)作状语时的多少个特色。


小时性。如果动词-ing形式所表表示的动作与谓语动词所代表的动作同时发生,则用常常式;要是动词-ing方式所代表的动作产生在谓语动词表示的动作此前则运用到位式。


语态性。应思谋动词-ing方式与句子主语之间的涉嫌是主谓关系依然动宾关系,据此来鲜明语态。

③ 人称的生龙活虎致性。动词-ing情势的逻辑主语应和语句的主语生机勃勃致。

  1. 动词-ing情势前能够加when, while,
    though等附属连词,那可以说是状语从句的省略。

例如:

When drinking to someone’s health, you raise your glasses, but the
glasses should not be touched. While visiting the city, they received a
warm welcome.

六、 动词-ing形式作补足语

例如:

  1. He found the wall being painted.

  2. With so many people communicating in English every day, it will
    become more and more important to have a good knowledge of English.    

平时,宾语补足语与宾语之间具备逻辑上的主谓关系,动词-ing格局作宾语补足语往往代表其动作在继续或开展中,用动词-ing作宾语补足语的大范围的动词有:

have, get, send, leave等使用动词;

see, hear, watch, observe, notice, catch, find, listen to,look
at等感官动词。

当这几个动词用于被动语态时,作宾语补足语的动词-ing情势就相应形成了主语补足语。

三、with的用法

with结构是超级多塞尔维亚语复合结构中最常用的意气风发种。学好它对学好复合宾语结构、不定式复合结构、动名词复合结商谈单身主格结构均能起很要紧的职能。

后生可畏、 with结构的结合

它是由介词with或without+复合结构重新整合,复合结构作介词with或without的复合宾语,复合宾语中第一片段宾语由名词或代词当做,第二有个别补足语由形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式或分词当做,分词能够是现行反革命分词,也足以是过去分词。

With结构重新整合艺术如下

  1. with或without-名词/代词+形容词;

  2. with或without-名词/代词+副词;

  3. with或without-名词/代词+介词短语;

  4. with或without-名词/代词+动词不定式;

  5. with或without-名词/代词+分词。

上边分别比方:

1、 She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.

(with+名词+形容词,作陪伴状语)

2、 With the meal over , we all went home.

(with+名词+副词,作时间状语)

3、The master was walking up and down with the ruler under his arm。

(with+名词+介词短语,作陪伴状语。)

The teacher entered the classroom with a book in his hand.

4、He lay in the dark empty house,with not a man ,woman or child to
say he was kind to me.

(with+名词+不定式,作陪伴状语)

He could not finish it without me to help him.

(without+代词 +不定式,作规范状语)

5、She fell asleep with the light burning.

(with+名词+今后分词 ,作陪伴状语)

6、Without anything left in the cupboard, she went out to get something
to eat.

(without+代词+过去分词,作为原因状语) 二、with结构的用法
在句子中with结构超多出任状语,表示作为艺术,伴随处境、时间、原因或规范(详见上述例句)。

With结构在句中也得以作定语

例如:

1.I like eating the mooncakes with eggs.

2.From space the earth looks like a huge water-covered globe with a few
patches of land sticking out above the water.

3.A little boy with two of his front teeth missing ran into the house.

三、 with结构的特征

1.
with结构由介词with或without+复合结构组成。复合结构中第后生可畏部分与第二有些语法上是宾语和宾语补足语关系,而在逻辑上,却有所主谓关系,也正是说,能够用第风姿洒脱部分作主语,第二有些作谓语,构成二个句子。

例如:

With him taken care of,we felt quite relieved.(欣慰)→(He was taken good
care of.)

She fell asleep with the light burning. →(The light was burning.)

With her hair gone,there could be no use for them. →(Her hair was
gone.)

  1. 在with结构中,第一片段为人称代词时,则该用宾格代词。

例如: He could not finish it without me to help him.

四、 几点说明:

  1. with结构在句子中之处:

with
结构在句中作状语,表示时间、条件、原因时日常位于句子前边,并用逗号与句子分开;表示方法和陪伴景况时相通位于句子前边,不用逗号分开。

若with结构作定语,则位居所修饰的名词之后,平时不要逗号隔离。

  1. with结构作状语时,不定式、今后分词 、和过去分词的区分:

在with结构中,不定式、以后分词作者宾补,表示积极,不过不定式表示将在爆发的动作,而前几日分词表示正在产生或产生了的动作;过去分词表示被动或达成。

例如: With the boy leading the way,we found he house easily.

(男小孩子已领过路)

With the boy to lead the way,we will find the house easily tomorrow.

(男童今日将指点)He lay on the bed with the bedroom door
shut.(寝室被关着)

  1. with结构与日常的with短语的区别

with结构具有上述功用和特点,而”介词with+名词或代词(组)”组成的相仿的with短语在句子中得以作定语和状语。

作状语时,它能表示动作的法子、原因,但不能够代表时间、伴随和准绳。在雷同的with短语中,with后边所跟的不是复合结构,也一直未有逻辑上的主谓关系。

  1. with结构与单身主格结构的关系:
    with结构归属独立主格结构,但在结构上,with结构由介词with或without引导,名词前有冠词、形容词、全体格代词或别的词类所修饰,结构较松懈;

而单独主格结构未有with或without辅导,结构严密,名词前可用可不要修饰语。在句句法功效上,with结构得以作定语,独立主格结构则无法;独立主格结构日常在句中作状语,但也足以作主语,而with结构则不能够。

独自己作主格在口语中不常用,往往由二个从句取代,而with结构较口语化,较常用。

例如: There were rows of white houses with trees in front of them.

(“with+复合宾语”结构,在句中作定语)

A strong man working a whole day could not jump this high.

(名词+未来分词构成的独立主格结构,作主语)

The boy said,turning to the man,his eyes opened wide and his hand
raised.

(独立主格结构,表示伴随情况或作为格局,作状语)

Then last night,I followed him here,and climbed in,sword in hand.

(名词+介词短语构成的独自主格结构,作状语,表示伴随情形)。

故事情节有一点点多,下篇随笔,小编将用我们的措施解读这八个成效词,我们的指标是最轻巧易行、最风趣、最精准的化解考试之处。

此外,想要领悟任何在备考进度中,其余内容的心上人,请关心自笔者的别的文章:

CATTI三级笔译备考日记(大器晚成卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎:真正起首看书前,小编做了怎么着?

CATTI乌克兰语三级笔译备考日记(二卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar):汉语翻译英十大翻译技术?笔者脑子笨,就无法说得轻便点,详细点?

CATTI西班牙语三级笔译备考日记(三卡塔尔国:请叫自身管家,叫笔者项目老董也得以

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